Learning Progress: 60%.

1 Big picture

1.1 Code is data

The first big idea is that code is data: you can capture code and compute on it as you can with any other type of data. The first way you can capture code is with rlang::expr().

More formally, captured code is called an expression. An expression isn’t a single type of object, but is a collective term for any of four types (call, symbol, constant, or pairlist).

f <- expr(f(x = 1, y = 2))

# add a new argument
f$z <- 3
#> f(x = 1, y = 2, z = 3)
# remove an argument
f[[2]] <- NULL
#> f(y = 2, z = 3)

1.2 Code is a tree

To do more complex manipulation with expressions, you need to fully understand their structure. Behind the scenes, almost every programming language represents code as a tree, often called the abstract syntax tree, or AST for short. R is unusual in that you can actually inspect and manipulate this tree.

ast(f(a, "b"))
#> █─f 
#> ├─a 
#> └─"b"
ast(f1(f2(a, b), f3(1, f4(2))))
#> █─f1 
#> ├─█─f2 
#> │ ├─a 
#> │ └─b 
#> └─█─f3 
#>   ├─1 
#>   └─█─f4 
#>     └─2
ast(1 + 2 * 3)
#> █─`+` 
#> ├─1 
#> └─█─`*` 
#>   ├─2 
#>   └─3

1.3 Code can generate code

rlang::call2() constructs a function call from its components: the function to call, and the arguments to call it with.

call2("f", 1, 2, 3)
#> f(1, 2, 3)
call2("+", 1, call2("*", 2, 3))
#> 1 + 2 * 3

call2() is often convenient to program with, but is a bit clunky for interactive use. An alternative technique is to build complex code trees by combining simpler code trees with a template. expr() and enexpr() have built-in support for this idea via !! (pronounced bang-bang), the unquote operator.

xx <- expr(x + x)
yy <- expr(y + y)

expr(!!xx / !!yy)
#> (x + x)/(y + y)

Unquoting gets even more useful when you wrap it up into a function, first using enexpr() to capture the user’s expression, then expr() and !! to create a new expression using a template. The example below shows how you can generate an expression that computes the coefficient of variation:

cv <- function(var) {
  var <- enexpr(var)
  expr(sd(!!var) / mean(!!var))

#> sd(x)/mean(x)
cv(x + y)
#> sd(x + y)/mean(x + y)

1.4 Evaluation runs code

Inspecting and modifying code gives you one set of powerful tools. You get another set of powerful tools when you evaluate, i.e. execute or run, an expression. Evaluating an expression requires an environment, which tells R what the symbols in the expression mean.

The primary tool for evaluating expressions is base::eval(), which takes an expression and an environment:

eval(expr(x + y), env(x = 1, y = 10))
#> [1] 11
eval(expr(x + y), env(x = 2, y = 100))
#> [1] 102

If you omit the environment, eval uses the current environment:

x <- 10
y <- 100
eval(expr(x + y))
#> [1] 110

1.5 Customising evaluation with functions

string_math <- function(x) {
  e <- env(
    `+` = function(x, y) paste0(x, y),
    `*` = function(x, y) strrep(x, y)
  eval(enexpr(x), e)
name <- "shitao"
string_math("Hello " + name)
#> [1] "Hello shitao"
string_math(("x" * 2 + "-y") * 3)
#> [1] "xx-yxx-yxx-y"

1.6 Customising evaluation with data

As well as expression and environment, eval_tidy() also takes a data mask, which is typically a data frame:

df <- data.frame(x = 1:5, y = sample(5))
eval_tidy(expr(x + y), df)
#> [1] 4 4 8 5 9

We can wrap this pattern up into a function by using enexpr(). This gives us a function very similar to base::with():

with2 <- function(df, expr) {
  eval_tidy(enexpr(expr), df)

with2(df, x + y)
#> [1] 4 4 8 5 9

Unfortunately, this function has a subtle bug and we need a new data structure to help deal with it.

1.7 Quosures

To make the problem more obvious, I’m going to modify with2(). The basic problem still occurs without this modification but it’s much harder to see.

with2 <- function(df, expr) {
  a <- 1000
  eval_tidy(enexpr(expr), df)

df <- data.frame(x = 1:3)
a <- 10
with2(df, x + a)
#> [1] 1001 1002 1003

Fortunately we can solve this problem by using a new data structure: the quosure which bundles an expression with an environment. eval_tidy() knows how to work with quosures so all we need to do is switch out enexpr() for enquo():

with2 <- function(df, expr) {
  a <- 1000
  eval_tidy(enquo(expr), df)

with2(df, x + a)
#> [1] 11 12 13

Whenever you use a data mask, you must always use enquo() instead of enexpr().

2 Expressions

expr() returns an expression, an object that captures the structure of the code without evaluating it (i.e. running it). If you have an expression, you can evaluate it with base::eval():

z <- expr(y <- x * 10)
x <- 4
#> [1] 40

2.1 Abstract syntax trees

Expressions are also called abstract syntax trees (ASTs) because the structure of code is hierarchical and can be naturally represented as a tree. Understanding this tree structure is crucial for inspecting and modifying expressions (i.e. metaprogramming).

2.1.1 Exercises

#> █─f 
#> └─█─g 
#>   └─█─h
ast(`+`(`+`(1, 2), 3))
#> █─`+` 
#> ├─█─`+` 
#> │ ├─1 
#> │ └─2 
#> └─3
ast(`*`(`(`(`+`(x, y)), z))
#> █─`*` 
#> ├─█─`(` 
#> │ └─█─`+` 
#> │   ├─x 
#> │   └─y 
#> └─z

2.2 Expressions

You can create a symbol in two ways: by capturing code that references an object with expr(), or turning a string into a symbol with rlang::sym():

#> x
#> x

You can turn a symbol back into a string with as.character() or rlang::as_string(). as_string() has the advantage of clearly signalling that you’ll get a character vector of length 1.

#> [1] "x"

2.3 Parsing and grammar

We’ve talked a lot about expressions and the AST, but not about how expressions are created from code that you type (like "x + y"). The process by which a computer language takes a string and constructs an expression is called parsing, and is governed by a set of rules known as a grammar.

Programming languages use conventions called operator precedence to resolve this ambiguity. We can use ast() to see what R does:

ast(1 + 2 * 3)
#> █─`+` 
#> ├─1 
#> └─█─`*` 
#>   ├─2 
#>   └─3

Most of the time you type code into the console, and R takes care of turning the characters you’ve typed into an AST. But occasionally you have code stored in a string, and you want to parse it yourself. You can do so using rlang::parse_expr():

x1 <- "y <- x + 10"
#> [1] "y <- x + 10"
#> [1] FALSE

x2 <- parse_expr(x1)
#> y <- x + 10
#> [1] TRUE
x3 <- "a <- 1; a + 1"
#> [[1]]
#> a <- 1
#> [[2]]
#> a + 1

3 Quasiquotation

Now that you understand the tree structure of R code, it’s time to return to one of the fundamental ideas that make expr() and ast() work: quotation. In tidy evaluation, all quoting functions are actually quasiquoting functions because they also support unquoting. Where quotation is the act of capturing an unevaluated expression, unquotation is the ability to selectively evaluate parts of an otherwise quoted expression. Together, this is called quasiquotation. Quasiquotation makes it easy to create functions that combine code written by the function’s author with code written by the function’s user. This helps to solve a wide variety of challenging problems.

Quasiquotation is one of the three pillars of tidy evaluation. You’ll learn about the other two (quosures and the data mask) in Chapter 20. When used alone, quasiquotation is most useful for programming, particularly for generating code. But when it’s combined with the other techniques, tidy evaluation becomes a powerful tool for data analysis.

cement <- function(...) {
  args <- ensyms(...)
  paste(map(args, as_string), collapse = " ")

cement(Good, morning, Shitao5)
#> [1] "Good morning Shitao5"
cement(Good, afternoon, Shitao5)
#> [1] "Good afternoon Shitao5"
name <- "Shitao5"
time <- "morning"

cement(Good, time, name)
#> [1] "Good time name"
cement(Good, !!time, !!name)
#> [1] "Good morning Shitao5"

The distinction between quoted and evaluated arguments is important:

  • An evaluated argument obeys R’s usual evaluation rules.

  • A quoted argument is captured by the function, and is processed in some custom way.

paste() evaluates all its arguments; cement() quotes all its arguments.

Talking about whether an argument is quoted or evaluated is a more precise way of stating whether or not a function uses non-standard evaluation (NSE). I will sometimes use “quoting function” as short-hand for a function that quotes one or more arguments, but generally, I’ll talk about quoted arguments since that is the level at which the difference applies.

3.1 Quoting

3.1.1 Capturing expressions

expr() is great for interactive exploration, because it captures what you, the developer, typed. It’s not so useful inside a function:

f1 <- function(x) expr(x)
f1(a + b + c)
#> x

We need another function to solve this problem: enexpr(). This captures what the caller supplied to the function by looking at the internal promise object that powers lazy evaluation.

f2 <- function(x) enexpr(x)
f2(a + b + c)
#> a + b + c

To capture all arguments in ..., use enexprs().

f <- function(...) enexprs(...)
f(x = 1, y = 10 * z)
#> $x
#> [1] 1
#> $y
#> 10 * z

Finally, exprs() is useful interactively to make a list of expressions:

exprs(x = x ^ 2, y = y ^ 3, z = z ^ 4)
#> $x
#> x^2
#> $y
#> y^3
#> $z
#> z^4
# shorthand for
# list(x = expr(x ^ 2), y = expr(y ^ 3), z = expr(z ^ 4))

In short, use enexpr() and enexprs() to capture the expressions supplied as arguments by the user. Use expr() and exprs() to capture expressions that you supply.

3.1.2 Capturing symbols

Sometimes you only want to allow the user to specify a variable name, not an arbitrary expression. In this case, you can use ensym() or ensyms(). These are variants of enexpr() and enexprs() that check the captured expression is either symbol or a string (which is converted to a symbol). ensym() and ensyms() throw an error if given anything else.

f <- function(...) ensyms(...)
#> [[1]]
#> x
#> [[1]]
#> x

3.1.3 Summary

Table 3.1: rlang quasiquoting functions
Developer User
One expr() enexpr()
Many exprs() enexprs()

3.2 Unquoting

Unquoting allows you to selectively evaluate parts of the expression that would otherwise be quoted, which effectively allows you to merge ASTs using a template AST.

Unquoting is one inverse of quoting. It allows you to selectively evaluate code inside expr(), so that expr(!!x) is equivalent to x. In Chapter 20, you’ll learn about another inverse, evaluation. This happens outside expr(), so that eval(expr(x)) is equivalent to x.

3.2.1 Unquoting one argument

Use !! to unquote a single argument in a function call. !! takes a single expression, evaluates it, and inlines the result in the AST.

x <- expr(-1)
expr(f(!!x, y))
#> f(-1, y)

As well as call objects, !! also works with symbols and constants:

a <- sym("y")
b <- 1
expr(f(!!a, !!b))
#> f(y, 1)

If the right-hand side of !! is a function call, !! will evaluate it and insert the results:

mean_rm <- function(var) {
  var <- ensym(var)
  expr(mean(!!var, na.rm = TRUE))
expr(!!mean_rm(x) + !!mean_rm(y))
#> mean(x, na.rm = TRUE) + mean(y, na.rm = TRUE)

3.2.2 Unquoting a function

!! is most commonly used to replace the arguments to a function, but you can also use it to replace the function. The only challenge here is operator precedence: expr(!!f(x, y)) unquotes the result of f(x, y), so you need an extra pair of parentheses.

f <- expr(foo)
expr((!!f)(x, y))
#> foo(x, y)

This also works when f is a call:

f <- expr(pkg::foo)
expr((!!f)(x, y))
#> pkg::foo(x, y)

Because of the large number of parentheses involved, it can be clearer to use rlang::call2():

f <- expr(pkg::foo)
call2(f, expr(x), expr(y))
#> pkg::foo(x, y)

3.2.3 Unquoting a missing forms

arg <- missing_arg()
expr(foo(!!maybe_missing(arg), !!maybe_missing(arg)))
#> foo(, )

3.2.4 Unquoting in special forms

There are a few special forms where unquoting is a syntax error. Take $ for example: it must always be followed by the name of a variable, not another expression.

To make unquoting work, you’ll need to use the prefix form:

x <- expr(x)
expr(`$`(df, !!x))
#> df$x

3.2.5 Unquoting many arguments

!! is a one-to-one replacement. !!! (called “unquote-splice”, and pronounced bang-bang-bang) is a one-to-many replacement. It takes a list of expressions and inserts them at the location of the !!!:

xs <- exprs(1, a, -b)
expr(f(!!!xs, y))
#> f(1, a, -b, y)

# Or with names
ys <- set_names(xs, letters[1:3])
expr(f(!!!ys, d = 4))
#> f(a = 1, b = a, c = -b, d = 4)

!!! can be used in any rlang function that takes ... regardless of whether or not ... is quoted or evaluated. We’ll come back to this in Section 19.6; for now note that this can be useful in call2().

call2("f", !!!xs, expr(y))
#> f(1, a, -b, y)
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